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Most of these 42 Indian casinos have table games like blackjack and poker as well.
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Start at San Luis Obispo on the coast, and draw a line east to Bakersfield and then on further east to article source Nevada border.
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One of these casinos is actually a truck stop with some slots.
For example, tiny Bishop, California, with less than 4,000 people, has a casino, while San Francisco does not.
And there are fourwhereas San Jose, twice its populationhas none.
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Biggest Casinos in Northern California The largest casino in Northern California is the Thunder Valley Casino Resort in Lincoln.
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Background High levels of airborne particles from secondhand smoke have been reported in California Indian casinos.
Yet, little is known regarding the smoking status of casino patrons, their avoidance of secondhand smoke while visiting, and their views on a hypothetical smoking ban.
Results Ethnic minorities, older individuals, current smokers and residents of sparsely populated regions of California were more likely than other demographic groups to visit a tribal casino.
Avoidance of secondhand smoke was more frequent among the never smokers than former and current smokers, particularly those who last visited a casino lacking physical separation between non-smoking and smoking sections.
The never smokers versus current smokers disproportionately expressed a willingness to extend their stay and visit again if smoking were prohibited.
Conclusions If casinos became smoke free, then it is anticipated that they would be visited by a significantly larger number of Californians, including both patrons and those who otherwise would not have visited a casino.
Background The state of California has long been regarded as a pioneer in the tobacco control movement in the United States.
The smoke-free laws in California were opposed by the tobacco industry and its sponsored organizations e.
As a likely consequence of California's commitment to tobacco control, the State's smoking prevalence has been less than the overall smoking prevalence in the U.
Passage of the 1988 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, based on the sovereignty of federally recognized Indian reservations, led to the establishment of numerous Indian casinos throughout California.
Sovereignty also enabled Indian tribes to permit smoking in casinos despite passage of California's Assembly Bill 13.
Aside from loopholes in the law allowing smoking in certain indoor settings e.
No study in the academic literature, to our knowledge, has assessed perceptions of secondhand smoke among casino patrons, a likely function of the difficulty in obtaining a representative sample.
Analysis of one such representative sample from the 2008 California Tobacco Survey CTS is a unique opportunity to research secondhand smoke among patrons of tribal casinos in California.
This also has international implications because of the provisions set forth in the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control FCTC.
Yet, even in the countries that have ratified the FCTC, non-smokers continue to be exposed to secondhand smoke in public indoor settings e.
This program supports the designation of smoking and non-smoking sections in indoor public settings, similar to what is observed in the California tribal casinos.
An examination of patrons' perceptions of secondhand smoke in the casinos, therefore, may be informative for policymakers as well as casino and hospitality industries in California and abroad.
Using data from the 2008 California Tobacco Survey, we aimed to assess smoking prevalence by casino visitation, predictors of casino visitation, avoidance of secondhand smoke among casino patrons, and willingness to extend one's stay and visit again if smoking were prohibited.
It is hypothesized that 100 smoke free casinos in northern california willingness was 100 smoke free casinos in northern california by a significant proportion of never smokers who visited a California Indian casino in the year prior to the 2008 survey.
Our secondary analysis of the data was exempt from review by the Institutional Review Board at the University of California, Irvine.
Measures The primary dependent variable was based on the question asked among all participants, "Have you visited an Indian casino in California in the past 12 months?
The latter was constructed by aggregating 10 California bioregions by location, participant representation and casino density.
The measure for smoking status included three groups, 1 never smokers who had never smoked 100 cigarettes or more in a lifetime, 2 former smokers who had smoked at least 100 cigarettes, but were not currently smoking, and 3 current smokers who had smoked at least 100 cigarettes.
Categories of the remaining predictors of casino visitation are listed in Table.
Map of California illustrating distribution of participants' residence and location of 58 tribal casinos.
Measure Patrons Column % Non-Patrons Column % Adjusted OR c 95% C.
These included an ordinal measure of the amount of time spent around secondhand smoke during the last click the following article i.
Approximating type of non-smoking section of last visited casino Responses to measures of secondhand smoke in the Indian casinos were likely to vary according to the level of separation between the smoking and non-smoking sections.
Thus, using the classification established by Jiang et al.
Classification of 36 of the 58 casinos was provided by Ruo-Ting Jiang, PhD personal comm.
The 2008 CTS did not query participants about which casino they last visited.
Therefore, we approximated the type of non-smoking section of the last visited casino by two measures, 1 nearest casino to place of residence, and 2 probability of visiting a casino with complete versus incomplete physical separation i.
The probability was weighted by the number of casino slots, a surrogate for casino popularity, and the inverse proximity of the casino to place of residence i.
The probability estimate included all casinos within 100 miles of residence, a value based on two considerations: 1 furthest distance between an individual's residence and the nearest casino was 92.
Casino proximity was determined by calculating distance between the locations of the casinos and the centroid of a participant's three-digit zip code.
However, the corrected F statistic was not employed in testing associations involving the approximated non-smoking section of the last visited casino; instead, a Pearson chi-square test was used.
Smoking prevalence and predictors of casino visitation In our study, the prevalence of current smoking was 17.
Participants aged 50 years and older were 35% more likely to have visited an Indian casino relative to young adults.
Non-Hispanic African-Americans and Hispanics were approximately 60% more likely than Non-Hispanic Caucasians to have visited a casino in the prior year; similar findings were observed for participants with a high-school education versus those with less than a high-school education.
The spatial relationships and clustering of casinos in these sparsely populated regions of California are illustrated in Figure.
Avoidance of secondhand smoke A majority of casino patrons, 60.
This varied considerably by smoking status as reported by 71.
Only among the never smokers did avoidance of secondhand smoke vary significantly by degree of secondhand smoke exposure in the casino F 3.
In contrast, significant associations were neither observed for the former smokers F 3.
Participants who reported little or no secondhand smoke exposure and also reported efforts to avoid such exposure may have moved successfully to a non-smoking section.
Casino patrons' avoidance of secondhand smoke by reported levels of smoking and secondhand smoke exposure.
Among the 58 California casinos, 21 were identified as being closest in proximity in miles to the centroids of zip codes where past-year patrons resided; the median distance was 36.
Three of the 59 centroids had only a single casino within a 100 mile 100 smoke free casinos in northern california, whereas, five centroids had 19 casinos within a 100 mile distance.
As illustrated in Figurea negative association, although not statistically significant ฯ‡ 3 d.
This trend was apparent neither for the former nor current smokers.
Avoidance of secondhand smoke by the nearest casino's non-smoking section and probability quartile of visiting a casino with an enclosed non-smoking section.
Accounting for casino distance and popularity i.
For these individuals, minimal variation in avoidance of secondhand smoke was observed across the first three probability quartiles: Quartile one 72.
Unlike the never smokers, there was no significant association between the probability quartiles and avoidance of secondhand smoke for the former or current smokers.
Views about a hypothetical smoking ban A total of 42.
In a separate question asked among all participants, 24.
Though, the majority of participants in the 2008 CTS 67.
As illustrated in Tableattitudes regarding a smoking ban varied considerably by smoking status.
Almost 50% of the never smokers and former smokers who visited a casino in the prior year reported a willingness to extend their stay if a ban were implemented; only 13% of current smokers expressed such sentiment F 3.
A similar finding was observed among the casino patrons F 3.
Compared to the patrons, the non-patrons expressed a greater indifference to a hypothetical smoking ban.
Measure Never smokers 63.
Our finding was more consistent with the estimates of smoking among gamblers at casinos in Las Vegas, NV 20.
Though, unlike the Nevada gamblers, the smoking prevalence among California Indian casino patrons appreciably exceeded the state prevalence 17.
This may be attributed to a variety of methodological differences between our study and the Nevada study, ranging from sampling to the actual prevalence of smoking in the respective tourist destinations.
Casinos in Nevada attract national and international tourists whom exhibit smoking rates comparable to their places of residence.
While much of the debate over smoking bans in casinos has centered on smokers, the crux of the debate is non-smokers' exposure and perceptions of secondhand smoke.
This is particularly evident in California where the majority of Indian casino patrons and non-patrons do not smoke.
Given the majority of non-smokers in the sample 87.
The significant association between exposure to and avoidance of secondhand smoke, observed only among the never smokers, highlights the importance of providing a smoke-free environment for patrons.
More importantly, there is a pressing need to eliminate secondhand smoke exposure among employees of casinos.
Similarly, enclosed non-smoking sections are not recommended despite our observation this web page the never smokers exhibited less avoidance of secondhand smoke in casinos with such facilities.
Advocacy for the enclosed non-smoking section would not resolve the occupational hazards associated with exposure to secondhand smoke in other parts of the casino.
Study strengths and limitations Analysis of the 2008 California Tobacco Survey provided one of the few opportunities to estimate the prevalence of smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke among patrons of California Indian casinos.
Yet, its use came with limitations.
The primary weakness of this study was the lack of information on the last visited casino and residential addresses of participants; thus, a 100 smoke free casinos in northern california estimation was based on number of slot machines and proximity of a casino to a participant's geocoded centroid.
Further, most study participants were sampled in regions in California where casinos are sparse, an additional complication to our estimation.
However, our assertion that proximity was a prime determinant of the last visited casino was warranted, given the significant association between casino visitation and residence in a casino-populated region i.
Our study was also hampered by a use of a cross-sectional design; use of different methods in ascertaining a casino's non-smoking section i.
Despite the study limitations, a significant association was observed between type 100 smoke free casinos in northern california non-smoking section and avoidance of secondhand smoke.
The magnitude of this association was likely underestimated due to non-differential misclassification i.
Conclusions The findings of this study have important implications for the support of a smoking ban in tribal casinos in California.
The data indicates that such a ban would increase casino visitation, possibly resulting in greater revenue and greater customer 100 smoke free casinos in northern california />At the moment, the public health community should continue to support initiatives such as California's Clean Air Project, whose mission is to provide technical assistance for tribal nations' voluntary adoption of smoke-free policies.
Authors' contributions DST conceived the study design, conducted most of the analyses, and drafted the manuscript.
JW developed the probability calculation for the last visited casino, geocoded casinos and participants' residence i.
WAD conducted the California Tobacco Survey that generated the data for this study, provided methodological input on design and measurements, and edited various sections of the manuscript.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Acknowledgements We would like to thank Ruo-Ting Jiang, PhD and Lynn Hildemann, PhD for providing information from their visual inspections of the California Indian casinos.
In addition, we would like to extend our gratitude to our research assistants, Jessica Kruger and Ani Shirinian, who contacted casino personnel for information on non-smoking sections.
Reducing tobacco consumption in California.
Development of a statewide anti-tobacco use campaign.
The effect of ordinances requiring smoke-free restaurants on restaurant sales.
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Is nonsmoking dangerous to the health of restaurants?
The effect of California's https://hairglam.ru/100/100-free-girls.html smoking ban on restaurant revenues.
Tobacco use among adults-United States, 2005.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep.
Smoking and gambling: a trance inducing ritual.
Cigarette smoking is associated with increased severity of gambling problems in treatment-seeking gamblers.
Nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders in the United States: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions.
Hedging their bets: tobacco and gambling industries work against smoke-free policies.
The effect of smoke-free policies on electronic gaming machine expenditure in Victoria, Australia.
J Epidemiol Community Health.
No association of smoke-free ordinances with profits from bingo and charitable games in Massachusetts.
Smoke-free law did not affect revenue from gaming in Delaware.
Measurement of fine particles and smoking activity in a statewide survey of 36 California Indian casinos.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol.
The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.
Geneva, Switzerland: WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control; 2003.
Secondhand tobacco smoke in bars and restaurants in Santiago, Chile: evaluation of partial smoking ban legislation in public places.
Tobacco industry manipulation of the hospitality industry to maintain smoking in public places.
Technical Report on Analytical Methods and Approaches Used in the 2008 California Tobacco Survey Analysis.
Vol 1: Data Collection Methodology, Public Use Data File 100 smoke free casinos in northern california, Individual Item Responses.
La Jolla: University California, San Diego; 2009.
Socal majority wants smoke-free Indian casinos.
College Station, TX: Stata Corporation; 2010.
Technical Report on Analytical Methods and Approaches Used in the 2008 California Tobacco Survey Analysis.
Vol 2: Statistical Methodology, Public Use Data File Documentation, Individual Item Responses.
La Jolla: University California, San Diego; 2009.
Analysis of Complex Surveys.
Chi-squared tests for contingency tables.
New York: Wiley; 1989.
Economic impacts of the proposed OSHA smoking ban on the state of Nevada.
Smoking frankly, 100 free spins starburst no deposit 2019 casual among gamblers at Nevada casinos mirror US smoking rate.
Attitudes towards second hand smoke amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers.
J Public Health Oxf 2006; 28 2 :104โ€”110.
ASHRAE position document on environmental tobacco smoke.
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.

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Most of these 42 Indian casinos click here table games like blackjack and poker as well.
In addition to this list of forty-two casinos, there are numerous card rooms in Nor Cal.
Start at San Luis Obispo on the coast, and draw a line east to Bakersfield and 100 smoke free casinos in northern california on further east to the Nevada border.
For the purposes of this article, everything above that is considered Northern California.
They range from luxurious resorts with golf courses, beautiful hotels, fine restaurants, and thousands of slot machines, to tiny road-side joints with just a few slots situated in small pre-fabricated buildings.
One of these casinos is actually a truck stop with some slots.
For example, tiny Bishop, California, with less than 4,000 people, has a casino, while San Francisco does not.
And there are fourwhereas San Jose, twice its populationhas none.
The Sacramento area is one metropolitan with a bounty of nearby gambling dens.
The four include some of the largest in the state.
Biggest Casinos in Northern California The largest casino in Northern California is the Thunder Valley Casino Resort in Lincoln.
This resort, located 30 miles east of Sacramento, has received the AAA Four Diamond Award for six years in a row.
There is a beautiful pool area, 12,000 square foot spa, 4 restaurants and a food court, a 2,000 seat concert venue, along with a 5,000 seat amphitheater.
The casino itself, is one of the largest in all of California, with 144,500 square feet of casino floor space.
In addition to 2,700 slot machines and 103 table games, Thunder Valley has a poker room and 500 seat bingo hall.
Other major casinos 100 smoke free casinos in northern california the northern part of the Golden State include: Graton Resort and Casino โ€” With 3,000 slot machines, it is the 3rd biggest casino in California based on number of gaming machines.
Cache Creek Casino โ€” Forty-six miles northeast of Sacramento, it has 2,400 slot machines, 122 table see more including the 14 table poker rooma 200 room hotel before the proposed expansion to 439 rooms9 restaurants, and an 18 hole golf course.
Table Mountain Casino โ€” Just 25 miles from Fresno, Table Mountain has 2,000 slot machines, 40 table games, a poker room, and a 700 seat bingo parlor.
Cache Creek Casino Tachi Palace Casino โ€” In between Fresno and Bakersfield, this huge casino rises up from seemingly nowhere.
The casino also boasts 2,000 slot 100 smoke free casinos in northern california and 31 table games.
Black Oak Casino โ€” Tuolumne, CA.
Cache Creek Casino Resort โ€” Brooks, CA.

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Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands Gambling laws reflected on this map do not include bingo. Note: American Indian and Alaska Native sovereign tribal laws are not reflected on this map. *Maine: State-Regulated Gambling Venues opened after 6/2003 (including the state's 2 casinos) required to be 100% smokefree


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Background High levels of airborne particles from secondhand smoke have been reported in California Indian casinos.
Yet, little is known regarding the smoking status of casino patrons, their avoidance of secondhand smoke 100 smoke free casinos in northern california visiting, and their views on a hypothetical smoking ban.
Results Ethnic minorities, older individuals, current smokers and residents of sparsely populated regions of California were more likely than other demographic groups to visit a tribal casino.
Avoidance of secondhand smoke was more frequent among the never smokers than former and current smokers, particularly those who last visited a casino lacking physical separation between non-smoking and smoking sections.
The never smokers versus current smokers disproportionately expressed a willingness to extend their stay and visit again if smoking were prohibited.
Conclusions If casinos became smoke free, then it is anticipated that they would be visited by a significantly larger number of Californians, including both patrons and those who otherwise would not have visited a casino.
Background The state of California has long been regarded 100 smoke free casinos in northern california a pioneer in the tobacco control movement in the United States.
The smoke-free laws in California were opposed by the tobacco industry and its sponsored organizations e.
As a likely consequence of California's commitment to tobacco control, the State's smoking prevalence has been less than the overall smoking prevalence in the U.
Passage of the 1988 Indian Gaming Regulatory Act, based on the sovereignty of federally recognized Indian reservations, led to the establishment of numerous Indian casinos throughout California.
Sovereignty also enabled Indian tribes to permit smoking in casinos despite passage of California's Assembly Bill 13.
Aside from loopholes in the law allowing smoking in certain indoor settings e.
No study in the academic literature, to our knowledge, has assessed perceptions of secondhand smoke among casino patrons, a likely function of the difficulty in obtaining a representative sample.
Analysis of one such representative sample from the 2008 California Tobacco Survey CTS is a unique opportunity to research secondhand smoke among patrons of tribal casinos in California.
This also has international implications because of the provisions set forth in the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control FCTC.
Yet, even in the countries that have ratified the FCTC, non-smokers continue to be exposed to secondhand smoke in public indoor settings e.
This program supports the designation of smoking and non-smoking sections in indoor public settings, similar to what is observed in the California tribal casinos.
An examination of patrons' perceptions of secondhand smoke in the casinos, therefore, may be informative for policymakers as well as casino and hospitality industries in California and abroad.
Using data from the 2008 California Tobacco Survey, we aimed to assess smoking prevalence by casino visitation, predictors of casino visitation, avoidance of secondhand smoke among casino patrons, and willingness to extend one's stay and visit again if smoking were prohibited.
It is hypothesized that such willingness was expressed by a significant proportion of never smokers who visited a California Indian casino in the year prior to the 2008 survey.
Our secondary analysis of the data was exempt from review by the Institutional Review Board at the University of California, Irvine.
Measures The primary dependent variable was based on the question asked among all participants, "Have you visited an Indian casino in California in the past 12 months?
The latter was constructed by aggregating 10 California bioregions by location, participant representation and casino density.
The measure for smoking status included three groups, 1 never smokers who had never smoked 100 cigarettes or more in a lifetime, 2 former smokers who had smoked at least 100 cigarettes, but were not currently smoking, and 3 current smokers who had smoked at least 100 cigarettes.
Categories of the remaining predictors of casino visitation are listed in Table.
Map of California illustrating distribution of participants' residence and location of 58 tribal casinos.
Measure Patrons Column % Non-Patrons Column % Adjusted OR c 95% C.
These included an ordinal measure of the amount of time spent around secondhand smoke during the last visit i.
Approximating type of non-smoking section of last visited casino Responses to measures of 100 smoke free casinos in northern california smoke in the Indian casinos were likely to vary according to the level of separation between the smoking and non-smoking sections.
Thus, using the classification established by Jiang et al.
Classification of 36 of the 58 casinos was provided by Ruo-Ting Jiang, PhD personal comm.
The 2008 CTS did not query participants about which casino they last visited.
Therefore, we approximated the type of non-smoking section of 100 smoke free casinos in northern california last visited casino by two measures, 1 nearest casino to place of residence, and 2 probability of visiting a casino with complete versus incomplete physical separation i.
The probability was weighted by the number of casino slots, a surrogate for casino popularity, and the inverse proximity of the casino to place of residence i.
The probability estimate included all casinos within 100 miles of residence, a value based on two considerations: 1 furthest distance between an individual's residence and the nearest casino was 92.
Casino proximity was determined by calculating distance between the locations of go here casinos and the centroid of a participant's three-digit zip code.
However, the corrected F statistic was not employed in testing associations involving the approximated non-smoking section of the last visited casino; instead, a Pearson chi-square test was used.
Smoking prevalence and predictors of casino visitation In our study, the prevalence of current smoking was 17.
Participants aged 50 years and older were 35% more likely to have visited an Indian casino relative to young adults.
Non-Hispanic African-Americans and Hispanics were approximately 60% more likely than Non-Hispanic Caucasians to have visited a casino in the prior year; similar findings were observed for participants with a high-school education versus those with less than a high-school education.
The spatial relationships and clustering of casinos in these sparsely populated regions of California are illustrated in Figure.
Avoidance of secondhand smoke A majority of casino patrons, 60.
This varied considerably by smoking status as reported by 71.
Only among the never smokers did avoidance of secondhand smoke vary significantly by degree of secondhand smoke exposure in the casino F 3.
In contrast, significant associations were neither observed for the former smokers F 3.
Participants who reported little or no secondhand smoke exposure and also reported efforts to avoid such exposure may have moved successfully to a non-smoking section.
Casino patrons' avoidance of secondhand smoke by reported levels of smoking and secondhand smoke exposure.
Among the 58 California casinos, 21 were identified as being closest in proximity in miles to the centroids of zip codes where past-year patrons resided; the median distance was 36.
Three of the 59 centroids had only a single casino within a 100 mile distance, whereas, five centroids had 19 casinos within a 100 100 smoke free casinos in northern california distance.
As illustrated in Figurea negative association, although not statistically significant ฯ‡ 3 d.
This trend was apparent neither for the former nor current smokers.
Avoidance of secondhand smoke by the nearest casino's non-smoking section and probability quartile of visiting a casino with an enclosed non-smoking section.
Accounting for casino distance and popularity i.
For these individuals, minimal variation in avoidance of secondhand smoke was observed across the first three probability quartiles: Quartile one 72.
Unlike the never smokers, there was no significant association between the probability quartiles and avoidance of secondhand smoke for the former or current smokers.
Views about a hypothetical smoking ban A total of 42.
In a separate question asked among all participants, 24.
Though, the majority of participants in the 2008 CTS 67.
As illustrated in Tableattitudes regarding a smoking ban varied considerably by smoking status.
Almost 50% of the never smokers and former smokers who visited a casino in 100 smoke free casinos in northern california prior year reported a willingness to extend their stay if a ban were implemented; only 13% of current smokers expressed such sentiment F 3.
A similar finding was observed among the casino patrons F 3.
Compared to the patrons, the non-patrons expressed a greater indifference to a hypothetical smoking ban.
Measure Never smokers 63.
Our finding was more consistent with the estimates of smoking among gamblers at casinos in Las Vegas, NV 20.
Though, unlike the Nevada gamblers, the smoking prevalence among California Indian casino patrons appreciably exceeded the state prevalence 17.
This may be attributed to a variety of methodological differences between our study and the Nevada study, ranging from sampling to the actual prevalence of smoking in the respective tourist destinations.
Casinos in Nevada attract national and international tourists whom exhibit smoking rates comparable to their places of residence.
While much of the debate over smoking bans in casinos has centered on smokers, the crux of the debate is non-smokers' exposure and perceptions of secondhand smoke.
This is particularly evident in California where the majority of Indian casino patrons and non-patrons do not smoke.
Given the majority of non-smokers in the sample 87.
The significant association between exposure to and avoidance of secondhand smoke, observed only among the never smokers, highlights the importance of providing a smoke-free environment for patrons.
More importantly, there is a pressing need to eliminate secondhand smoke exposure among employees of casinos.
Similarly, enclosed non-smoking sections are not recommended despite our observation that the never smokers exhibited less avoidance of secondhand smoke in casinos with such facilities.
Advocacy for the enclosed non-smoking section would not resolve the occupational hazards associated with exposure to secondhand smoke in other parts of the casino.
Study strengths and limitations Analysis of the 2008 California Tobacco Survey provided one of the few opportunities to estimate the https://hairglam.ru/100/100-fre-games.html of smoking status and exposure to secondhand smoke among patrons of California Indian casinos.
Yet, its use came with limitations.
The primary weakness of this study was the lack of information on the last visited casino and residential addresses of participants; thus, a crude estimation was based on number of slot machines and proximity of a casino to a participant's geocoded centroid.
Further, most study participants were sampled in regions in California where casinos are sparse, an additional complication to our estimation.
However, our assertion that proximity was a prime determinant of the last visited casino was warranted, given the significant association between casino visitation and residence in a casino-populated region i.
Our study was also hampered by a use of a cross-sectional design; use of different methods in ascertaining a casino's non-smoking section i.
Despite the study limitations, a significant association was observed between type of non-smoking section and avoidance of secondhand smoke.
The magnitude of this association was likely underestimated due to non-differential misclassification i.
Conclusions The findings of this study have important implications for the support of a smoking ban in tribal casinos in California.
The data indicates that such a ban would increase casino visitation, possibly resulting in greater revenue and greater customer satisfaction.
At the moment, the public health community should continue to support initiatives such as California's Clean Air Project, whose mission is to provide technical assistance for tribal nations' voluntary adoption of smoke-free policies.
Authors' contributions DST conceived the study design, conducted most of the analyses, and drafted the manuscript.
JW developed the probability calculation for the last visited casino, geocoded casinos and participants' residence i.
WAD conducted the California Tobacco Survey that generated the top 100 online games mmorpg free for this study, provided methodological input on design and measurements, and edited various sections of the manuscript.
All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Acknowledgements We would like to thank Ruo-Ting Jiang, PhD and Lynn Hildemann, PhD for providing information from their visual inspections of the California Indian casinos.
In addition, we would like to extend our gratitude to our research assistants, Jessica Kruger and Ani Shirinian, who contacted casino personnel for information on non-smoking sections.
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The probability estimate included all casinos within 100 miles of residence, a value based on two considerations: 1) furthest distance between an individual's residence and the nearest casino was 92.1 miles, 2) average distance traveled to an Indian casino in Southern California was 64 miles based on a customer satisfaction survey (Note: standard deviation not available).


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